Input elements for evaluating the size of the balancing market (i.e. the short time fluctuations in power generation/demand). In panel (a) we show the electric transmission network in Italy; the topology and the physical characteristics of lines and generators are the constraints that influence the power flow. In panel (b) we show the market zone splitting used for managing the congestions of the entire Italian network. In panel (c) we show a typical ODA+ID market (One-Day-Ahead Market + Intraday Market) final output with the detailed contribution of each primary energy source; hence, it represent the day ahead energy needs as foreseen from energy operators. The balancing market takes care of short time fluctuations that occur during the day respect the scheduled ODA+ID output.
Mureddu, Mario, Guido Caldarelli, Alessandro Chessa, Antonio Scala, and Alfonso Damiano. 2015. “Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.” PloS one 10(9):e0135312. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/jo